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The Kyokan Language

on Tue Mar 13, 2018 6:19 pm
This is the recently overhauled system of language-creation for Kyokai.
Originally meant for use within The Oracle's Mandate for the first few games, as well as the first rendition of the book, Kyokan (Old Temperan) was inspired off of a mix of both Spanish or Latin, and Greek. Suffice to say, it was a unique sounding language, with a simple system derived from years of understanding how Spanish worked. As time went on, however, I discovered certain things that made the language a bit too clunky, and so it felt quite forced. Hence, I decided to reform the language entirely.
Since I started learning Japanese, I have come to enjoy its fluidity and complexity. It is based around this language that I created the new Elder Tongue. With this in mind, I first started creating phonetic characters in which to organize Old Temperan / Kyokan speech. Next, I started to think of sentence formation and flow.
PLEASE NOTE: This is exceedingly difficult to explain without actually writing in any of my characters and giving you visual aid to my guide, but please, bear with me. 
An Elder Tongue
Part I — Intonation, Inflection, and Sound:
Kyokan is a rather complex language to learn, and it's mainly only spoken within its country of origin. However, the relationship between sound and the language is quite simple: 
Vowels are as follows, along with their respective sounds—
A = "Ah" ~ (a soft "a", like the sound "o" makes in the English word "soccer")
I = "Ee" ~ (a hard "e", as in the English letter's sound)
U = "Ooh" ~ (a soft "u", like the English "o" in the word "smooth")
E = "Eh" ~ (a short "e", almost like the sound "a" makes in the English word "stray")
O = "Oh" ~ (a hard "o", just like the sound the English letter itself makes)
All of the Kyokan language's core characters are phonetically derived, and so these vowels play a huge part in how the language sounds. Most words in the language, in fact, end in a vowel sound.
NOTE I: The character for the phonetic sound "SC" sounds like a continued and stressed "Sss" noise when spoken. This is comparable to the similar sounding characters for "X" and "Z".
NOTE II: Though in what is known as a "Glide", there are two characters utilized, the first character should glide into the second. This means, pronunciation of the glide "NYU" should not sound like "NEE-YOO", but rather flow subtly. Thus, there is no glottal stop between the two characters, as all glides should be considered one sound, instead of two distinct sounds.
NOTE III: Spoken language dictates that certain stresses be taken out for a flowing sound. For example, the word "HAJIMESOSHITE", which means "It's a pleasure to meet you", will sound differently than if one were to merely sound out each character like so: "Ha-Ji-Me-So-Shi-Te". Though the word contains all of those phonetic sounds, spoken language tends to omit certain stressed sounds, in this case, it is the "i" in "shi" since it is followed by another sound, ending the word. When Hajimesoshite is spoken out, it sounds more like "HA-JI-ME-SO-SHTE", as the "i" was omitted. This is the case for many words with similar formation.
If there is a word in Kyokan that uses a double consonant, than an accent mark is added BEFORE the character that is repeated. In the spoken language, there is a sound stress before the phonetic sound of the character AFTER the accent mark. So for example, the word "Hekka", which translates to "Crown", would contain a stress on the sound "ka" makes. "HE—KA". This would mean a short glottal stop is necessary after the sound for "he".

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Part II — Character–Sound Relationships:
In Kyokan, there are core characters, and deviated characters. Core characters represent one of the 62 in the language. The Deviant characters are phonetic sounds, utilizing core characters and an accent character, in order to relay a deviated sound from the original. For example, the sound "TA" would be a core character, while the similar sound "DA" would be a deviant.
Similar sounds require some interesting notations to be added in the written language. For example, the sounds "SA" and "ZA" are remarkably similar, and so in Kyokan, it is made easier on the writer by using the same character for "SA", to use for "ZA". To differentiate between the two sounds in writing, one must add hatchmark-esque accent characters to the top right of the original core character.
Core characters with a Deviant Set are as follows:
S > Z (X)
F > V
K > G
B > P
*S > J
R > L
T > D
* — Sounds that start with a "J" receive the same character as a "Z" / "X", however the accent character will appear with three hatchmarks instead of two in order to differentiate between "J" and "Z" / "X" sounds.
Glides are sets of characters that form a single sound. Examples of this would be sounds like "GYA", "NYU", or "BYO". To form a glide, one must take the core sound character, then add the glide character at the end.
Ex: To form the glide sound "GYA", one must take the core character for "GI", then glide using the small "YA".
Glide list:
The core character "TI" can glide to a "CH" sound as well as a "D" sound. "CH" sounds can be differentiated by the hatchmark accent characters on the UPPER LEFT side of the core character, rather than the RIGHT.
Examples of a "CH" glide would be "CHA", "CHU", and "CHO".

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Part III — On Sentence Structure and Grammar:
Forming a proper sentence requires both conjugation, particle use, subject and predicate, and lastly proper tense. In Kyokan, the subject always begins, followed by the rest of the sentence.

To note: There is NO FUTURE TENSE in Kyokan, anything dealing with a future tense is taken in context using the Present / Normal tense. 
Here is a sample sentence:
"I will attack the enemy." which translates to "Anato ro ajaredasa o tatakaemasuyo."
Anato = I (myself)
ro = particle used to mark the subject
ajareda = (the) enemy
ajaredasa = "sa" is the conjugation of "the enemy"
o = particle used to mark the action
tatakae = to attack
tatakaemasu = "~masu" is the present affirmative ending to the verb "to attack"
tatakaemasuyo = "yo" is the conjugation of the verb, implying that the speaker will attack [implied future tense]
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Particles are added to modify the sentence. Many, such as Ro, Los, and Sho are added after the subject they carry. Conversely, particles such as Ga or No come before. Da, being the particle in place of a question mark, comes after the sentence ends. There can be multiple particles within a sentence, depending on how complex it is.
Here is a list of all known particles in Kyokan:
Subject— ro
Possession— no
Question (mark)— da
Time— los
Destination for an Action— ga
Location— sho
Person / Thing / Action— o
Personal Connection to Adjective and Subject— na
---> Meaning, when a sentence requires the listener or speaker to answer what their "favorite food" is, the question would be formatted with the particle "na" between the Adjective "favorite" and the topic "food" in order to connect them. This is also used to emotionally connect the speaker to the listener, as though saying "This is good, right?"

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Conjugation is a complex system within Kyokan. To conjugate a verb, one must add a specific ending onto the word in question.
When referring to an action requiring many people (for the use of the word "they"), then the verb must contain "sa" at the end. If the action is performed by oneself, then the ending "yo" must be added instead.
IN ADDITION: When considering present/future and past tenses and positive versus negative action, those endings as shown below must be added JUST BEFORE the conjugative end characters.
Here is a list of the conjugative endings, as well as the past and present tense forms:
I / Myself = Anato — yo
You / Yourself, Him / Himself, Her / Herself = Atashi — te
It / Itself = Datoshi — os
We / Ourselves / Us = Tokomo — mos
Them / Themselves / They = Kokoro — sa
You / Yourselves (collective) = Koro — ai
Affirmative = ending + ~masu
Negative = ending + ~masen
Affirmative (Past) = ending + ~mashito
Negative (Past) = ending + ~masen deshito
Other methods of conjugation:
If one were to want to say they wanted to do something, or in other words, expressing desire, one must thus conjugate the verbs in the correct manner. VERB + ending= ~tai.
"I'm going to the library."
"Anato ro arakan sho aemasuyo."
"I want to go to the library."
"Anato ro arakan sho aetaiyo."

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General example sentences:
"I'm eating now."
"Anato ro iine tabemasuyo."
"We did not eat earlier."
"Tokomo ro beruna tabemasen deshitomos."
"I will drink some water later."
"Anato ro teruna eto aizu o nomimasuyo."
"When are you going to eat?"
"Atashi ro nanji tabemasute da."
"How are you? My name is Xalerion Ilatarus. It's a pleasure to meet you."
"Shinozan da. Namae ro Xalerion Ilatarus. Hajimesoshite."
"My favorite food is pasta."
"Anato no rinkan kuta na tabenanda ro ginkon nara."

Alternate sentence layout: 

Sentences may be read from left to right in common writing and most conventional pieces. However, ancient scripts using Kyokan are typically written in the traditional manner, right to left. Additionally, those ancient scripts are also written vertically upon scrolls in calligraphic ink. 

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Part IV — Dictionary:

The Copula Verb:
To be: ~Nara (should never be conjugated)

Mr. / Mister: Jaan
Mrs. / Misses: Haan
Ms. / Miss: Hana
Sir: Kyaka
Lord: Eyuele
Lady: Oele
Elder [masculine]: Ohaji
Elder [feminine]: Ohana
General: Taiko
Captain / Commander: Kantaiko
Lieutenant: Fukantaiko
Major: Buchutaiko
Officer (lower ranks): Gentura
Emperor / Royalty: Ouka
Admiral / Captain (of a ship): Bunchou
Princess: Hime
Mother (formal): Hahaue
Mother (informal): Okaa
Father (formal): Chichiue
Father (informal): Otou
Elder Brother: Aniki
Elder Sister: Aneki
Wife (informal): Usume
Wife (formal): Nakane
Husband (informal): Jisho
Husband (formal): Ojisho
Time (Hours): ~ji
Time (Minutes): ~bun
Time (Seconds): ~shun
Age: ~sai
Nationality: ~jin

To move / advance: Fara
To have: Nare
To want: Ki
To need: Ne
To love: Daisuki
To give: Dio
To receive: Reike
To watch: Mia
To attack: Tatakae
To defend: Gyate
To ride: Lora
To go: Ae
To take: Fasuta
To follow: Ikki
To aim: Matte
To bow: Zare
To march: Vuro
To allow: Lette
To touch: Ora
To forbid: Yalta
To speak: Hanta
To understand: Wakarae
To like: Kuta
To see: Mikki
To serve: Shensana
To know (possession / person): Unto
To meet: Soshi
To come: Ku
To make / create: Kurae
To seek: Noki
To do: Arae
To stop: Agare
To bid / wish: Kozai
To eat: Tabe
To drink: Nomi
To forgive: Gonansei
To excuse: Sumana
To get: Getta
To read: Yoki
To help: Ayume
To look: Mira
To appear as / To look like: Mitareni
To rise / get up: Kyomu
To lay down / go to bed: Neru
To pray / To worship: Senjuru
To study: Benkyou

Some: Eto
Many / A lot: Meshi
Few: Ato
None: Koros
Always: Zenzen
Sometimes: Dokisa
Never: Hachi
Rarely: Tanda
Often: Zoku
Both: Senshi
Double: Donshi
Half: Kuchi
All: Senkai
Again: Gadae
Later: Ja

Conjunctions and Connectors: 
But: Demo
Also / And / Including: Mo
Did: Desho
To: Ga
Here: Kochos
There: Sanzos
In: Mushi
On: Denshi
Has: Hya
Even: Una
For: Kasu
Of: No
As: Shi
Like: Za
Such: Hyo
This: Kore 
That: Sore
That (over there): Are
From / by (location): Karaka
Thing (tangible): Nanda
Thing (intangible): Konda
Then... / So then... / And then... : Ja

Question Words:
What: Nano
Where: Kara
When: Nanji
Who: Dare
How: Zan

Gestures and Mannerisms:
Hello (informal): Domoka
Hello (formal): Domoka kozaimasu
Good morning: Gratta Mantiro (kozaimasu) 
Good afternoon: Gratta Hanturo
Good night: Gratta Aeturo
Goodbye (informal): Sentimo
Goodbye (formal): Eiyonimo
Please: Onekai
Thank you: Oerbitos
No thank you: Iyo oerbitos
How are you: Shinozan da
Please do: Touzo
Welcome: Irasshae
I see / Is that so?: Sou nara da
It is / It is so: Sou nara
Yes: Kai
No: Iyo
Fine: Faja
Good: Gratta
Bad: Suwa
Alright: Meyos
Great: Sandure
Horrible: Saitai
Sad: Mieru
Happy: Zoppo
Honor(ed): Eiyos
Good luck: Gratta seizo
A pleasure to meet you: Hajimesoshite
I'm sorry / Forgive me: Gonansei
Excuse me: Sumanyo
The honor is mine: Eiyos naremashitoyo

General counter: Satsu
Ordinal marker (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.): ~Kan
Year counter: Nan
Month counter: Gatsu
Day counter: Nichi
Era / Period counter: Jidai

Numbers and Order:
Zero: Maru
One: Rin
Two: Pyo
Three: Sho
Four: Zan
Five: Kou
Six: Nen
Seven: Ro
Eight: Yon
Nine: Sanzo
Ten: Ippo
Eleven: Ipporin
Twelve: Ippopyo
Thirteen: Ipposho
Fourteen: Ippozan
Fifteen: Ippokou
Twenty: Pyoippo
Thirty: Shoippo
One-hundred: Jakku
One-thousand: Byou
Ten-thousand: Ibbyou
One-million: Iona
3,542: Shobyou-koujakku-zanippo-pyo

January: Ringatsu
February: Pyogatsu
March: Shogatsu
April: Zangatsu
May: Kougatsu
June: Nengatsu
July: Rogatsu
August: Yongatsu
September: Sanzogatsu
October: Ippogatsu
November: Ipporingatsu
December: Ippyogatsu

Military Terminology:
Unit(s): Butai / ~Gumi
Guard(s): Bushi
Command: Kantara
Armor: Valda
Move / Advance: Fara
To (fire): Infine
Arrow(s): Aitos
Blade(s): Taka
Spear(s): Yori
Halberd(s): Nagi
Sword(s): Xaltos
Shortsword(s): Jifos
Longsword(s): Jokutos
Steel: Gane
Shield(s): Doros
Pole-blade(s): Najikata
Enemy: Ajareda
Attention: Aestoroso
Mission / Quest: Hefeteru
Action: Akasa
Group / Squad: Gomos
Fortress / Bastion: Shimatos
Other Words:
Crown: Hekka
Empire: Empyados
World / Realm / Land: Dae
Mountain: Arda
Good: Gratta
Bad: Suwa
Old: Vielo
New: Nuvo
Pristine / Untarnished / Pure: Ryeros
Home: Uchi
Dark: Helius
Shadow: Kagerou
Light: Terius
Life: Veros
Forbidden: Yeldos
Morning: Mantiro
Afternoon: Hanturo
Night: Aeturo
Day: Jadiro
Language: ~gou
Pen / Quill / Brush: Karui
Prosperity: Eiyou
Hell: Yomi
Glory / Magnificence: Xelaer
God / Goddess: Kamo
Divine / Divinity: Kamote
Temple: Lemantate
Valley: Itto
Hill: Shu
Steppe: Seguros
Magic / Arcane: Arukenos
Colony: Raku
Peace / Tranquility: Esurien
Disorder: Okura
Water: Aizu
Fire: Hoka
Metal: Oros
Truth: Honto
Now: Iine
Later: Teruna
Earlier: Beruna
Name: Namae
Guide: Kaishou
Favorite / Best: Rinkan
Pasta dish: Ginkon
Food: Tabenanda
Drink / Beverage: Nominanda
Storm / Tempest: Arashi
Filler sound: Ano~ (like saying "Um..")
Health / Healthiness: Daijou
Library: Arakan
Person / People: Hito
Dog: Inu
Cat: Neko
Tiger: Tora
Idiot / Moron / Stupid: Baka
Big / Large: Naga
Small / Little: Chisa
Foreigner: Ryoku-jin
Foreign: Ryokai
Heavenly Land / Body: Kaimetsu
Rising Sun: Kyotoushi
Sun: Toushi
Moon: Tsubasa
Age: Saiko
Religion: Senjitsu; Zenjitsu
The Way; The Study Of...: ~Jitsu
Country / Nation: ~Kyo / Komi
War / Violence: Sentai
Kingdom: Heikkyou
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